Features of Traditional Political Science
Generally, the political theories and approaches before the pragmatist revolution or the end of the Second World War are known as traditional political science. All the scholars of the classical era, like Plato, Hobbes, Rousseau, Green, etc., come under this. The following are the characteristics of traditional political science--
1. Institutional Approach
It studies the state and its structures, units, etc., from an institutional point of view. The main subjects of its investigation have been the state government, political institutions, and goals of the state (justice, security, liberty, equality, morality, etc.).
2. Effect of personality and attitude of thoughts
The characteristic of traditional political science is that its theories are influenced by the personality and attitude of its exponent, who tries to find permanent solutions to the political problems of the time. Most theoreticians have been influenced by ethics or philosophy. They have paid attention to the goals and values of human life and society. Evidence for this is the achievement of moral life by Greek theoreticians, the establishment of a divine kingdom by the Christian politicians of the Middle Ages, and ideas related to the interview with the conscience of the idealists. Their ideologies have been considered transcendentalist. Their views are subjective and methodologically inferable. They do not follow the scientific method. Their ideas are the personal approach and thinking, imagination, and spiritualism.
A characteristic of traditional political science is that its field of thought was super-disciplinary; That is, all ideas were related to many sociology and not only to politics. Therefore, theoreticians like Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau, Marx, etc., have taken an important place in almost all social sciences. As a result, there remained a lot of ambiguity in the subject area of Political Science.
Traditional political theory is often intellectual and goes beyond reality and practice.
5. Logic Based
Conservatives' conclusions are based on logic and not mathematical results like modern political science or scientific methods like fact-collecting and surveying.
6. Legal Approach
Some empiricist theoreticians are also seen among the traditionalists, but their empiricism or realism has been ineffective in legal and institutional relation to political institutions. From this point of view, they have been able to look at politics from the juristic or legal aspects.
The main methods of research and analysis of the traditionalists have been historical and descriptive. Much of its literature is written sitting in libraries rather than in the open market of politics.
8. Lack of Symmetry
Unlike modern political scientists, traditionalist theoreticians do not try to find a general political theory because their thoughts are subjective and emotional. Therefore, there is no similarity in their views.
9. Not Interdisciplinary
The traditionalists are not inclined to adopt the techniques and conclusions of a study from other professions and disciplines, especially from the developed social scriptures. Therefore, traditional political science has not become an interdisciplinary one.