Divine Theory of Origin of the State
Of all the theories that have been propounded so far regarding the origin of the state, the theory of divine origin is the oldest. According to this theory, the state is a divine institution established not by humans but by God. God appoints one of his representatives as the king. Since the king is the representative of God, he is responsible to God. The people must obey the orders of the king.
According to this theory, God created the state directly or indirectly. The state is not a human-made institution but a divine institution. The state is the representative of God. God has created the state for the welfare of humans, so the only duty of humans is to obey the orders of the state unconditionally.
Hindus, Jews(Yahudi), Christians, Muslims, and people of all other religions believe that the origin of political power is a divine gift. For example, during the Shanti Parva of 'Mahabharata', Bhishma said, "Finding the situation unbearable in the absence of political power, people approached Brahma and prayed, "Oh Lord, without any protector we are perishing." Give us a protector whom we will worship together, and he will protect us." The Lord accepted the prayer and appointed Manu to rule over them. Manu hesitated to accept this appointment as he found it difficult to rule over those people. Thought whose conduct is always deceitful. But eventually, he was assured that people would support him financially, morally and spiritually.``
The Jews(Yahudi) also hold the same view. The "Old Testament" clearly mentions the belief that God chooses, appoints, releases, and even kills evil rulers. The king is believed to be responsible to God for all his actions done intentionally or by mistake.
The source of power in the "New Testament" of Christians is believed to be rooted in the divine will. Paul's Romans said in very clear or strong words, "Let every soul be subject to higher powers, for there is no power except divine power, the powers directed by God, so whoever resists the power will suffer divine anger."
In the Middle Ages, the Popes were the representative of Jesus Christ on earth, and therefore their words were as true as those of Jesus Christ.
According to Getel, "For a long time in human history, the state was considered god or divine and the form of government was religious."
Religion was of utmost importance in the life of the people during the practice of divine doctrine, and the feeling of fear towards God was prevalent. Therefore, the creator of the state was also accepted as God. The king was considered the representative of God who was responsible only to God for his actions. Since the king is the representative of God, it was considered the duty of the subjects to obey his commands. To disobey His commandments means to disobey God's commands, that is, to sin.
In short, the divine principle has been explained in three ways--
First: God Himself came to this earth and established the rule.
Second: God established rule over the people through his representatives.
Third: God created such tendencies in human beings, which showed the need for rule and order and the spirit of discipline and obedience was born in them.
Features of the Divine Theory of Origin of the State
The following are the main features of the divine theory of the origin of the state--
1. The king is the representative of God, who has made him a king.
2. The office of the king is ancestral.
3. The king is responsible only to God. If he makes a mistake, it is an instruction given to him by God.
4. God has given him this power as a gift. He is an officer by birth. The divine principle of the king provides divine authority to the king. Autocratic and autocratic rulers established the divine rights of the king through this principle.
5. The king's command is the command of God; violating it is a sin.
the fall of the divine principle
This theory began to decline in the second half of the seventeenth century. As man's intellectual development progressed, less evidence supported this theory. According to Gilchrist, there were three main reasons for the decline or decline of this theory--
First, by propounding the theory of social agreement, the State did not arise out of God but due to mutual agreement of people.
Second, the loss of the power of the Church, that is, the separation of the Church from the State and the importance of secular questions in life, is considered paramount.
Third, the most severe blow to this principle came from developing the spirit of democracy. Democracy opposed and denied the autocratic and autocratic rule of the king.
Criticism of the Divine Principle
This principle had filled the hearts of the people with immense respect and reverence for the king; as a result, the kings in the Middle Ages committed horrific atrocities on the people with the help of the name of God. The present scientific age has proved that the real power of the king is not in the hands of the king; it lies in the hands of the people. The king can enjoy his honour only with the support of the public. Democracy states were created due to this feeling, proving that states are not god-made but human-made.
Divine principle (doctrine) is criticized on the following grounds--
1. It has been the critics' belief about the divine principles of the state that when the kings accept the autocracy, they start using all the powers of the state in the fulfilment of immoral acts.
2. The divine origin theory is anti-democratic. In a democratic system, the government is elected by the people, who can remove it if they do wrong things. In this, the ruler is responsible to the people, but this principle does not accept these beliefs of democracy.
3. Critics have thought that this theory is completely unhistorical because it does not get any description of history. There is no evidence anywhere in history that God established the state.
5. The belief in divine principle is based on conservatism. It is also harmful because it supports the autocracy and autocracy of the king.
6. This orthodox theory is completely invalid in today's scientific age. In the modern era, no theory can be accepted until proven to be true on the test of logic and facts. This theory also does not give a satisfactory answer to the curiosities of man, so it cannot be accepted either. In the words of Gilchrist, "The idea that God makes this or that person king is a stark contrast to experience and common sense."
7. This principle supports the autocracy and autocracy by making the king a representative of God. This gives the kings the right to rule arbitrarily. It makes the king very powerful, and through this principle, he is not responsible to anyone.
importance of the divine principle
This theory has become extinct today, yet this theory has utility for the state--
First: This theory emphasises the moral basis of the state. To consider the state as the work of God means to give the state a high standard. It is the moral duty of the king to establish a beautiful state; that is, it implies that the purpose of the state is public welfare.
Second: This principle has proved to be very helpful in establishing peace and order in society by eliminating anarchy and disorder. In ancient times, humans were afraid of God, they were lovers of religion, so it became a great convenience for the rulers to rule the people based on this principle. This taught the spirit of obedience among the people.
In the words of Gethel, "This doctrine taught people to obey when they were not ready to rule over themselves."
Gilchrist has also written, "Howsoever wrong and irrational this theory may be, at least it deserves the credit for the prevention of anarchy."