6/10/2022

Evolutionary theory/historical theory of the origin of the state

Evolutionary theory or historical theory of the origin of the state

According to the evolutionary theory of the state, the state is neither a divine creation nor a result of power or war nor the result of mutual agreement between individuals. According to this theory, the state is not an artificial institution but a natural community. Only the historical or evolutionary theory presents the correct explanation of the origin of the state. The divine theory, power theory, paternal and matrilineal theory and social contract theory propounded about the origin of the state are based on the belief that the state originated under certain circumstances or at a particular time. That is why all these theories are not accepted. This theory states that the state is the result of development, not creation. While progressing from primitive society, it has acquired the form of the present national states.
In this regard, Dr Garner says, "The state is neither the work of God, nor is it the result of physical force of a high order, nor is it the work of any proposal or agreement, nor is it an extended form of the family. This is gradual development. It is a historical institution that arose from." This statement is considered to be true.

Evolutionary theory says that the state was not born in a particular period, but its development was due to circumstances. In this context in which order the development of the state has taken place, some scholars have presented their views which are as follows--
1. Family
a human is a social creature, and because of sociality, he must have first systematised a family. Thus, the family is the first step in the institutional journey from the person to the state. This family is the initial build of the state. It has almost all the qualities of a state.
2. Clan
The second level of development of society is the family or clan. Different branches develop when the family grows, becoming a clan. In this, various people belonging to the family are involved. These people are related by blood; these tribes used to lead barren life earlier. Their leader was Sardar. Before the king, Sardar was appointed as the leader.
3. Village
Earlier, the main profession of the community was animal husbandry or hunting. Then these tribes used to trek in search of grass and prey; later, after the growth of agribusiness, they started settling in one place. This led to the development of the village institution. In this also, all the basic features of the state are present. However, people of many castes, families, and tribes live together. Their head is the predecessor form of the king.
4. City
Small villages gradually progressed and took the form of towns. Later on, the city-state developed due to political consciousness from these. These small towns became self-sufficient in economic and social terms, and in them, the post of the king(another form of government) was established. These were small states.
5. Empire
In the development journey starting from the family to the modern state, the empire developed first after the city-state. Later, the warrior kings of the city-state conquered other nearby small city-states and gave birth to huge empires like the great Greek-Roman Empire, Bevillon, and Magadha State. Kings like Sikandar, Caesar, Samudragupta, Chandragupta and Chola played a major role in their development.

Elements of state

States originated at one time and later developed gradually. The following auxiliary elements played a major role in the development of the state--
1. Social tendency
Social consciousness also played a major role in the development of the state. Social consciousness made him a suitable citizen of the society and divided into different communities, which helped the state.
2. Political Consciousness
Humans are political creatures and have political consciousness. This political consciousness binds the individuals in the society and inspires them to establish governance, obey the rule and, participate in the works of governance, perform rights and duties.
3. Economic Activities
Human beings have an economic consciousness, which motivates them for economic activities and actions. Individuals earn money by buying things and selling more things than they need and buying other necessities. It organises the economic life of society.
4. Power
Power  has also played a major role in the development and protection of the state. There are many proofs available in history related to  this.
5. Blood Relations
Blood relations played a major role in the development of family, and clan in the above development sequence because all of them are blood relations.
6. Religion
Religion also played a major role in the development of the early form of the state. Religion was the first to limit wild humans. In this regard, priests, sorcerers and exorcists were important. By showing fear of supernatural power to humans, they used to get some rules and regulations done by restricting or regularising them.

Review of Evolutionary Theory of Origin of State

It is a fact that in the modern era, the evolutionary theory of the origin of the state is considered because these principles are better from a logical point of view. This theory proves that the state is neither the product of power nor God created it. Moreover, these principles are not hypothetical, like social agreement. According to its theory, the origin of the state is the result of the natural tendency of man to socialise and cooperate.
This theory is also valuable because it considers the state a natural institution that has developed gradually.
Concerning the origin of the state, two types of perspectives are prevalent – ​​traditional and modern. The theory of divine origin, power theory, etc., are traditional and modern approaches of two types - first, liberal and second, Marxist approach. Two theories are important in the liberal approach - the theory of social agreement, which was propounded by Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau and the evolutionary theory, which was propounded by authors like Bezhat, Spencer, Giddings, Lowy etc. Today all liberal writers, including Garner and MacIver, follow the evolutionary theory of the origin of the state. In contrast, communist writers like Marx, Engels, Lenin, etc., believe in the class system's theory about the state's origin. Liberal and Marxist writers, in fact, alike regard the state as a developmental institution. Both MacIver and Engels recognize to a greater or lesser degree the importance of blood, race, religion, power, economic causes and political consciousness in the origin of the state.

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