Power theory of the origin of the state
According to this theory, the origin of the state is due to power. The state arose when powerful people subjugated the weak. In other words, the origin of the state became possible only because of war. Those victorious during the war became the rulers, and those who were defeated were the subjects.
According to Voltaire, the first king was a fortunate warrior.
According to Jacques, it is very easy to prove from the historical point of view that the existence of modern political societies is rooted in successful wars.
Blunsley also supports this view, saying that no state exists and cannot exist without power.
In this way, power originates during the war and a state originates from power. The state can be maintained only by power.
According to Bismarck, the main basis of the state should be blood and iron.
According to Triske, the state has the power to attack and defend.
In this context, the following features of 'Shakti Theory' come to the fore-
1. Power is the only basis for the origin of the state.
2. Power means physical and military power.
3. Dominance, craving and aggression are essential components of human nature.
4. The law of nature is that power is justice.
5. In each state, the minorities rule powerfully, and the majority follow the powerless. Presently the existence of the states is centred on power.
Use of power theory
1. In the Middle Ages, religious leaders called the state corruption and the church a superior institution.
2. Individualists used it to prevent government interference in individual liberty.
3. Anarchist socialist theorists also used this principle for the individual's freedom.
4. Fascists and Nazis also supported and used this theory.
Critique of power theory
The power theory of the state is criticised on the following grounds--
1. Power is not the only factor in the origin of the state. Although it played a major role in the origin of the state, other reasons for its origin were also consciousness, religion, blood relations etc.
2. According to T. H. Green, the basis of the origin of the state is a will, not power. The state can neither be organised nor sustained without the will of the people. People follow the orders of the state not out of fear of power but with their conscience and intelligence.
3. The power theory gives rise to such principles, which mean that only the strong have the right to survive.
4. This principle makes the state autocratic, due to which the freedom of the people ends, and democracy is destroyed.
5. This theory is opposed to international peace and world fraternity because of its emphasis on power; it is an imperialist theory.
6. This theory emphasises only physical power. Spiritual, technical and legal power is also important in the modern era.
According to these criticisms, the principle of power does not matter in the origin of the state, but power has played an important role in the birth and development of the state. In ancient times, power played an important role in organising the chaotic society. Apart from this, the sense of discipline and obedience also came due to power. Even in modern times, when the state is not powerful, it becomes a victim of anarchy and disintegration.